Modern computers have been created by combining several technologies. Some of these technologies have contributed to programming, some to calculation, some to printing, and some to small computers.


  • Computer programming and operation have become possible due to the logical algebra developed by George Boole. British scientist Claude Shenon created a relay-based switching circuit to prove that the devices can be operated automatically even remotely based on the concept of the George Boole.
  • Automated calculations are done by the computer with the help of a flip-flop transistor circuit. The development of semiconductors such as silicon has made it possible to manufacture several thousands of transistors on a nail-shaped chip and complete microprocessors have been built into a single chip.
  • The amazing development of automatic machines has led to the creation of printers that print very fast. The calculations that occur inside a computer due to a picture-based television-like video screen can be viewed directly.

After Russia made unmanned rockets, humans went on to build small-sized devices. Transistors and other semi-conductors were used in every automatic device. Their use led to energy savings and the heat released from them also decreased.

Previously all electronic components were connected to the wires. Later, printed circuit boards (PCBs) began to be made, which made possible the prevention of loose connections and made the circuits more reliable. Microchips were made after printed circuit boards. In 1958, JS Kilvi of America built a circuit in which 26 electronic components, including transistors, were fitted with no wires and solder joints. This circuit is named Integrated Circuit. Micro (miniaturization) methods began to develop with the creation of IC, which led to the creation of the world's first microcomputer alter in 1974. After this, the entire central processing unit was built on a single chip. This chip was named Microprocessor.

Chip manufacturing

One element found in abundance in the earth is silicon, which is used to make chips, and a meter long rod is made by mixing the crystals of silicon. With this rod 15 to 50 mm diameter and 2 mm diameter. Thousands of length plates are cut through these steps to make a chip.

  • First, the design of a microprocessor circuit is made with the help of a computer.
  • 99.9999999% pure silicon is melted in a vacuum or vacuum tube to make a 1 meter long crystal. Since pure silicon is a bad conductor, some molecules of boron or antimony are added to make it a semi-conductor. Some sticks (Chip) are cut from this silicon rod.
  • In step (1), the drawing of the circuit is made by photographic method on the swatch and one side circuit is made. A photo gadgets are folded between the two folds created in this way.
  • All this work is done in an ultra clean air conditioned laboratory whose filter operation is 300 times greater than that of the thetator filters.
  • These silicon disks 1100 0 are cooked in an electric furnace with a few chemicals on the Celsius temperature. At higher temperatures, the molecules of the inaccurate component move into the circuit lines embossed on the chip, and the circuit begins to function almost like a semi-conductor wire.
  • Circuits formed on the disk are examined using a microscopic method. During this test, more than 70% of the findings are found to be bad. From 250 to 500 of the remaining spots are cut with laser or diamond saw.
  • The cut chip is placed in the pockets placed above it and the wires going out of its circuits, which are made of very expensive metal, are made up of notches as they are sold in the market. These look like the shape of a dining table of about 8 to 32 feet. Thus, a chip is made using very high technology, which is approximately equal in size to the nail.

History of microprocessor

Each computer is composed of several microprocessors. The microprocessor chip connects circuits to the computer's memory, RAM, ROM, visual display units. Micro processor is another name for chip integrated circuits, in which transistors, capacitors, registers, etc. are mounted on the same chip. It is also known as a highly integrated circuit (VLIS).

Ted Hoff of Intel Corporation first created a chip in which the entire circuit was integrated and lowered. The first microprocessor in the world was named INTEL 4004. This chip had about 4000 transistors adjusted. This chip saw some further improvements and the 8080 chip was built, which later marked the beginning of the microcomputer (miniaturization) era. The first microcomputer to use this chip was the Altair-8800. In 1975, the chip cost only $ 3500.

Similar to this chip was created by Geelog, which became known as Z-80. Sinclair built micro computers based on this chip.

Intel's 8080 chip was slightly improved to create the first 8085 and later 8086 chips, which had a speed of 5 MHz to 8 MHz, with a 16-bit data bus and about 29000 transistors.

After this, the Motorola company improved its chip 6800 to a 68000 chip with 32 bit data bus. This chip was installed on Apple's MacTosh computer. An equally powerful chip 8088 was built which was called IBM. Compatible computers, which are called PC and PC-XT. Their speed is from 4.77 to 8 MHz.

The 80286 chip was almost double the speed and more memory chip than the 8088, after which Intel made the 80386 chip and used it in the new personal computer series PS / 2, which has not yet been copied.

Intel 80486 and Motorola's 68040 chips have the capability to deliver 10 million instructions per second. Has released the Mastake 6502 chip for Uniform Educational Computer being built for Indian schools.

Intel recently released a chip called Pentium, using which IBM launched its Power PC. The speed of this chip released to the computer is 120 MHz.

Motorola's chips are used in Apple series computers. America's three firms, Intel, Advanced Micro Devices and Motorola, are at the forefront of making chips.

Zilog Z-80, Z-8000 are well-known microprocessors based on Sinclair's micro computers called ZX-80, ZX-81 and Spectrum. The ZX-81 is the best selling home micro-computer.


I am an engineer by profession but being a blogger is my old day's dream to create my site for those who are more curious about my birthplace than I am coming from (India). the current city lives in Navi Mumbai, India

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