WHAT IS A CAPACITOR AND ITS TYPES

WHAT IS A CAPACITOR?


Definition - Capacitor or Condenser is an insulating medium that can separate two operating surfaces. The insulating medium is called the dielectric constant or relative permittivity of the material. The most commonly used dielectric materials in capacitors are air, mica, paper, ceramic and plastic.


The insulating medium does not allow DC to pass whereas, in an AC circuit, current flows through the capacitor have little and no resistance. The capacitor is an electrical component that can store energy in the form of an electrical charge.


WHAT IS A CAPACITOR AND ITS TYPES



TYPES OF CAPACITOR


1. Dielectric Capacitor - This is of variable type and is required for tuning transmitters, receivers, and transistor radios. These dielectric capacitors are multi-plate capacitors consisting of a set of both fixed plates and movable plates. movable plates move between fixed plates.


2. Film Capacitor - These are the most available among all types of Capacitor. Film capacitors have a family of capacitors, but their dielectric properties are different. The dielectric material may include polyester, Teflon, metalized paper.


3. Ceramic Capacitor - Ceramic Capacitors are made by silver coating on both sides and then stacked together to form a capacitor. Ceramic capacitors are also known as disk capacitors.


4. Electrolytic Capacitor - This type of capacitor is used when considerable capacitance is required. They are used in DC power supply circuits, there are two forms of electrolytic capacitors:


  • Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitors - These capacitors are of two types: Plain foil type and etched foil type. The DC current is anodized to the foil plates of the capacitors, and due to this anodizing process, the polarity of the poles can be established, and this contradiction tells us which side of the plate is positive or negative.

In addition, they have the ability to re-anodize the foil plate. If the layer of aluminium oxide is destroyed, the electrolytic Capacitor will allow it to pass through the condenser and destroy the Capacitor.


  • Tantalum Electrolytic Capacitors -  This type of Capacitor is available in both wet and dry electrolytic types. a dry electrolytic Capacitor is most commonly used. They are mostly used in circuits where the AC voltage is smaller than the DC voltage.

The capacitance of a conductor depends on the following factors:

  • Size of Plates: If the plates are larger than the size, they can charge more than the given potential.
  • Distance between Plates: The capacitance of the capacitor depends on the distance between the plates. If the distance is less then the capacitance will be more.
  • Relative permittivity: The capacitance of the capacitor depends on the relative permittivity of the insulating medium. The capacitance is high when the relative permittivity is high.

FEATURES OF CAPACITOR


1. Normal Capacitance (C): Standard values ​​of capacitance are measured in picofarads (pF), nano-Farads (nF) or micro-Farads The capacitance of a capacitor can change the value according to the frequency of the circuit.


2. Working voltage: The working voltage is the maximum voltage, whether AC or DC, that can be applied to the circuit without breaking its entire working life.


3. Tolerance (+ -%): Capacitor has a tolerance rating, which is a plus or minus value in Pico-farads for Capacitors, the most common tolerance variation being 5% or 10%.


4. Leakage current: The dielectric medium that we used to separate the capacitor plates had leakage current, so the dielectric medium cannot be called correct. This small leakage of current is known as Leakage Current.


5. Working temperature: As we know, temperature changes allow changes in dielectric properties, temperature differences also affect capacitance. The average working range for most Capacitors is -30C to + 125C.


6. Temperature coefficient: The temperature coefficient of a capacitor tells us the maximum change in the value of the capacitance for a specific temperature as million degrees per centigrade.


7. Polarization: Capacitor polarization tells us about electrolytic type capacitors, but they must have the correct polarity as we know the wrong polarization that can damage the circuit.


8. Equivalent series resistance: This is the AC impedance of the Capacitor. This tells us about the energy loss of equivalent series resistance of Capacitor.


APPLICATIONS OF CAPACITOR


  • Capacitor Is Used For Storing Energy.
  • In Capacitor, Energy Storage Is Used To Create Dynamic Digital Memories.
  • Reservoir Capacitors Are Used In Power Supply.
  • Capacitor Is Also Used For Many Pulsed Power Applications Such As Lasers, Radar, Pulse Forming Networks.
  • Capacitor Is Also Used For Power Factor Correction.
  • Capacitor Is Used To Separate The Ac And Dc Components Because The Capacitor Passes The Ac And Blocks The Dc.
  • The Energy Stored In The Capacitor Is Used To Represent The Information.
  • Radio Receivers Use The Variable Capacitor For Tuning Frequency.


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