WHAT IS SEMICONDUCTOR MEMORY?

BEFORE UNDERSTANDING SEMICONDUCTOR MEMORY - WE WILL KNOW WHAT IS MEMORY?


WHAT IS MEMORY?


This Device Stores The Instructions Received By The Input Device By Storing It In The Computer Where It Also Goes To The Memory Of The Computer. 


In A Human, It Is A Brain To Remember Some Things, In The Same Way, A Computer Has Memory To Remember Data. This Memory Is An Integral Part Of The Cpu, It Is Also Called The Computer's Main Memory, Internal Memory, Or Primary Memory.


  • "KEEPING ANY INSTRUCTIONS, INFORMATION, OR RESULTS STORED IS CALLED MEMORY."

WHAT IS SEMICONDUCTOR MEMORY?



Computers Have More Than One Memory. We Can Generally Classify Them As Primary And Secondary Memory. Primary Memory Is Both Volatile And Non-volatile. Temporary Memory Keeps Data From Temporarily Turning On The Computer Until The Computer Is Shut Down, That Is, The Data Is Lost From The Computer When The Computer Suddenly Shuts Down Or Power Goes Down. Permanent Memory Starts Your Computer. Are Helpful In Doing.


It Contains Some Very Useful Firmware Which Helps In Booting The Computer. The Process Of Starting A Booting Computer Is Called Main Memory. Secondary Storage Is That Which Keeps Our Data For A Long Time. Secondary Storage Comes In Many Forms. Floppy Disk, Hard Disk, Cd Etc.


BIT OR BYTE


The Data Stored In Memory Is Converted To 0 Or 1, 0 And 1 Are Jointly Called Binary Digits. In Short, They Are Also Called Bits. This Bit Is The Smallest Unit To Measure The Space In A Computer's Memory.


8 BITS = 1 BYTES

1024 BYTES = 1 KILOBYTE (1 KB)

1024 KB = 1 MEGABYTE (1MB)

1024 MB = 1 GIGABYTE (1 GB)

1024 GB = 1 TERABYTE (1 TB)


WHAT IS SEMICONDUCTOR MEMORY?


Semiconductor memory is a digital electronic data storage device that is used to store digital data, such as computer memory. This usually refers to MOS memory, where data is stored on a silicon integrated circuit memory chip within metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) memory cells. This memory has been made in many different types and technologies.


Semiconductor memory has the property of random access, which means that it takes the same amount of time to reach any memory location, so data can be accessed efficiently in any random order.


Semiconductor memory has a much faster access time than other data storage; One byte of data can be written to or read from semiconductor memory within a few nanoseconds, while the use of time for rotational storage such as hard disks is in the range of milliseconds.


For these reasons it is used for main computer memory, a computer currently operating among other uses to hold data. Shift registers, processor registers, data buffers, and other small digital registers that do not have a memory decoding mechanism are not considered as memory, although they also store digital data.


TYPES OF SEMICONDUCTOR MEMORY


There Are Two Types Of Semiconductor Memory -


1. RAM (Random Access Memory)


RAM or Random Access Memory is the temporary memory of a computer. Data input from the keyboard or any other input device is stored in RAM before processing and the CPU. The data or program in RAM is stored temporarily as per the requirement, the computer gets the data stored (stored) in RAM when the computer is shut down or power is gone Therefore RAM is called Volatile or Temporary Memory. There are many types of RAM capacity or size like - 4 MB, 8 MB, 16 MB, 32 MB, 64 MB, 128 MB, 256 MB, etc. There are three types of RAM. The read and write (R / W) memory of a computer is called RAM. The user can write it and read information from it.


2. ROM (Read-only memory)


The full name of ROM is Read-only Memory. This is Permanent memory, in which programs are stored at the time of building the computer. The programs stored in this memory cannot be changed and deleted, they can only be read. Therefore this memory is called read-only memory. Even after the computer is switched off, the data stored in ROM is not destroyed. Hence ROM is called non-volatile or permanent memory which is also known as firmware.


TECHNOLOGIES OF SEMICONDUCTOR MEMORY


PROM


PROM's full name is Programmable Read-Only Memory, it is such a memory that once the data is stored in it, it cannot be erased nor change. Because of this, PROM chips are often referred to as Time Programmable (OTP) chips. To permanently erase data stored in the PROM, the programming of the ROM is sometimes referred to as Burning and requires a special machine called the ROM Burner.


EPROM


The full name of EPROM is Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory, it is similar to PROM but the program stored in it can be erased only by ultraviolet rays, and new programs are stored. Can be done. This is easily done with the help of the EPROM Eraser device, which contains an Ultraviolet rays source that erases the data due to a chemical reaction to the chip.


EEPROM


The full name of EEPROM is Electrical Programmable Read-Only Memory. There is also a new technology EEPROM, in which programs can be erased from memory by the method. It is also called hybrid memory because it reads and writes similar to RAM but holds the same data as ROM. It is a mixture of RAM and ROM.


 DYNAMIC RAM


Dynamic RAM is abbreviated as DRAM. RAM is the most common DRAM in RAM. It uses metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) memory cells consisting of a MOSFET (MOS field-effect transistor) and a MOS capacitor to store each bit. . This type of RAM is the cheapest and highest in density, so it is used for main memory in a computer.


The electric charge that stores the data in the memory cell leaks slowly, so memory cells must periodically refresh (rewrite), requiring additional circuitry. The refresh process is controlled internally by the computer and is transparent to its user. It needs to be refreshed as soon as possible. Refresh here means to power the chip, it refreshes about thousands of times in a second, and each time it refreshes before it erases the object, its speed is due to a quick refresh. Are less.


SHAME


Static RAM is RAM that is less refreshed. Due to less refresh, it keeps the data in memory longer. S-RAM is faster and more expensive than Diagram. It relies on multiple MOSFETs that create a digital flip-flop to store each bit. It is less dense and more expensive per bit than DRAM, but faster and does not require memory refresh. It is used for small cache memory in a computer.


SYNCHRONOUS RAM


Synchronous RAM is faster than DRAM. The reason for its high speed is that it is the CPU. Refresh according to clock speed. That is why they transfer data faster than the DRAM.

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