WHAT ARE BASE STATIONS? BRIEF EXPLANATION TO BASE STATIONS

EXPLANATION TO BASE STATIONS

What are base stations?

The base station is a radio transmitter/receiver, in which the antenna is used in mobile telecommunications networks. The base station maintains communication between the network and mobile users via radio links. The geographical area covered by the base station is called a cell. In UMTS, the base station is called Node B.


BASE STATIONS

The base station is a fixed point of communication for a customer's cellular phone on a carrier network.


The base station is connected to an antenna (or multiple antennae) that transmits the signal to the cellular phone and cellular devices in the cellular network. The device is connected to a mobile switching station that connects cellular calls to the public switched telephone network (PSTN). is.


The mobile base station sends/receives radio signals and is responsible for creating the cell area. A typical cell tower is made up of several parts:


(i) Antenna - For sending and receiving radio signals within the cell.


(ii) Tower or supporting structure - where the antenna is mounted, it can be a building or a tower.


(iii) Hardware - Supports support of base stations which is often called BTS (base transceiver station) and is stored in a cabinet or shelter.


(iv) Link - A link to a digital exchange that can be either a cable or a wireless connection.


The base station is a fixed communication location and is part of the wireless telephone system of a network. It provides information related to the transmission/receiver unit such as a mobile phone. The base station allows the mobile phone to operate in a local area, as long as it is connected to a mobile or wireless service provider.


Types of Base Station


The base station is typically positioned at a location above the grounded area that provides coverage. Different types of base stations are set according to the required coverage, which is as follows:


Macrocells -


These are the base stations covering the largest areas of the service provider and are usually located in rural areas and highways.


Microcells -


Microcells are low-power base stations that cover areas where a mobile network requires additional coverage to maintain customers' quality of service. They are usually located in suburban and urban areas.


Picoccells -


Picocells are small base stations with many users providing more localized coverage in areas where network quality is poor.



Base Station Type
Typical Coverage Radius
Typical Use

Femtocell

10m

home or office use

Domestic Repeater

100m

home, office, or factory use

Picocell

200m

high rise building, hotel or car park use

Microcell

1-2km

shopping centers, transport hubs, mine sites, city blocks, temporary events, or natural disasters.

Macrocell

5-32km

suburban, city, and rural use

Macrocell – Extended Reach

50-150km using extender cell technology

suburban and rural use


Base Station Capacity


The base station can handle a fixed number of calls at a time. A typical base station has about 168 voice channels available.


The service provider may have multiple base stations to cover specific areas. Ideally, bandwidth requirements serve as a guideline regarding the location and relative distances of base stations. In most cases, 800 MHz base stations have greater point-to-point distances than 1900 MHz stations. The number of base stations depends on population density and any geographic irregularities that interfere with the sending of information, such as buildings and mountain ranges.


The base station is essential for the mobile phone to function correctly and optimally. If there are not enough base stations in an area with too many network subscribers or geographic interference, the quality of service is greatly affected. In these cases, the base stations are located in areas of close proximity to customers.


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