WHAT ARE DIGITAL SIGNATURES? HOW DOES IT WORK

What are Digital Signatures? How does it work

What are Digital Signatures?


A digital signature is a mathematical scheme to demonstrate the authenticity of a digital message or document. A valid digital signature gives a recipient the confidence that the message was created by a known sender. This is a special digitally signed code that is used to authenticate any online document. A digital signature is similar to a hand signature, but a hand signature is not reliable and secure whereas a digital signature is reliable and secure.


Digital signatures rely on certain types of encryption to ensure authentication. A digital signature is based on the method of public-key cryptography. Two keys are used in this. The key that encrypts the message is kept for the public and the key that decrypts the message is kept secret.


Digital signature guarantees the authenticity of an electronic document or message in digital communication and uses encryption techniques to provide evidence for original and uncomplicated documents.


Digital signatures are used in e-commerce, software distribution, financial transactions, and other situations that rely on counterfeiting or tamper detection techniques. A digital signature is also known as an electronic signature.


DIGITAL SIGNATURES


A digital signature can be easily understood by a few points-


1: -Digital signature is a mathematical technique used to ensure the identity of a message or electronic document.


2: -The digital signature is similar to the signature done by hand but the signature done by hand is not reliable and safe while the digital signature is reliable and secure.


3: - Digital signature ensures that the message or document is genuine and who has sent that message or document.


4: -Digital signature is based on the method of public-key cryptography. Two keys are used in this. The key that encrypts the message is kept for the public and the key that decrypts the message is kept secret.


5: -Digital signature is mostly used for e-commerce, software distribution, financial transactions, and online banking so that our transactions can be protected.


History of Digital Signature


1976: Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman first described the idea of ​​a digital signature scheme, but they only stated that such schemes exist.


1977: Ronald Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Len Adleman invented the RSA algorithm, which can be used to produce a type of primitive digital signature.


1988: Lotus Notes 1.0, which used the RSA algorithm, became the first widely marketed software package to offer digital signature.


1999: Added the ability to embed digital signatures into documents in PDF format.


2000: ESIGN Act makes digital signature legally binding.


2002: SIGNiX was established and is the most commonly used cloud-based digital signature software.


2008: The PDF file format became an open standard for the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as ISO 32000. It includes digital signatures as an integral part of the format.


Today, digital signatures are well established which is the most reliable way of online signature on documents. Unlike the original digital signature technology, today's digital signatures can be easily used and can be created using any computer with an Internet connection.


A digital signature is implemented and verified as follows:


The document or message sender (signatory) or public / private key supplier shares the public key with the end-user.


Sender, using its Private key, adds encrypted signatures to the message or document.


The end-user decrypts the document and verifies the signature, letting the end-user know that the document belongs to the original vendor.


How Digital Signature Works


Digital signature providers use a special protocol called Public-key Infrastructure (PKI). Digital signatures are based on public-key cryptography, also known as asymmetric cryptography. This produces two keys that are mathematically linked: Private Key and Public Key |


Public key cryptography relies on two reciprocal authentication cryptographic keys. The person who is creating the digital signature uses their private key to encrypt the signature-related data; The only way to decrypt that data is the public key of the signatory. In this way, digital signatures are certified.


Digital signature technology requires all parties to believe that the person making the signature can keep their private key secret. If someone else has access to the private key of the signature, that party can create a false digital signature in the name of the private key holder.


What are Digital Signature Certificates?


  • A digital certificate is an electronic "password" that allows an individual, the organization, to exchange data securely over the Internet using the public key infrastructure (PKI).
  • A digital certificate is also known as a public key certificate or identity certificate.
  • Digital Signature Certificate (DSC) provides high-level security to the information exchange happening in online transactions.
  • The DSC contains information about the user's identity (name, PIN code, country, email address, date of issue of the certificate, and the name of the certified authority).

Needs of Digital Signature Certificate


  1. For E-filling of the income tax return.
  2. For E-filling of Company Incorporation.
  3. For e-Attestation by Chartered Accountants, Company Secretaries, and Cost Accountants.
  4. For E-filling of government tender.
  5. For E-filling of trademark and copyright applications.
  6. For e-signing of agreement and contract.

Types of Digital Signature Certificate


Class I DSC


It can be issued to anyone, it certifies the user's email identity.


Class II DSC


It is issued to the business and private individuals. It identifies a person based on a database, that is why it is used to fill online forms of the ministry of corporate affairs, sales tax, and income department.


Class III DSC


It is the safest. It is used to establish identity in e-commerce and e-trading. It is issued directly by DSC Certified Authority (CA) and indicates a high level of authenticity because the person applying in it Is required to present himself before the Registration Authority and prove his identity.


Summary Words


  • The digital signature was invented in 1977 by Ronald Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Len Adleman.
  • A digital signature is a mathematical technique used to ensure the identity of a message or electronic document.
  • A digital signature is similar to a hand signature, but a hand signature is not reliable and secure whereas a digital signature is reliable and secure.
  • A digital signature is based on the method of public-key cryptography. Two keys are used in this. The key that encrypts the message is kept for the public and the key that decrypt the message is kept secret.
  • A digital signature is mostly used for e-commerce, software distribution, financial transactions, and online banking to secure our transactions.
  • A digital certificate is an electronic "password" that allows an individual, the organization, to exchange data securely over the Internet using the public key infrastructure (PKI).

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