WHAT IS A GIS? HOW DOES IT WORK

What is a GIS? What is GIS? How does GIS work

What is a GIS?


A geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer system used to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and display all types of spatial or geographic data. GIS applications are tools that allow end-users to perform spatial queries, analysis, improve spatial data, and create hard copy maps.


Simply, GIS can be defined as an image that is about the Earth or has an x ​​and y coordinate and whose values ​​are stored in the table. Most of the time GIS is used to create and print maps.


This is software with the help of mapping the target area. After that, through the data received, accurate information about that entire area is acquired while sitting in the office.


This software is being used in the fields of Earth Science, Farming, Defense, Nuclear Science, Architecture, Town Planner, Mapping, Mobile, etc. The main software of GIS is ILWIS, IDRISI, ArcGIS, etc.


GIS can be used to solve a location-based question such as "What is located here" or where to find specific features? GIS can retrieve values ​​from the user map, such as how much forest area there is on the land.


This is done using the query builder tool. For example, you can do many more combinations to show elevation data, river data, land use data, and information about the landscape of the area. With the map, you can tell where the high ground is or the best place to build a house, GIS helps to find new information.


WHAT IS A GIS? HOW DOES IT WORK


HISTORY OF GIS


GIS has evolved with computer systems. Here are brief events that have taken place for the development of the GIS system.


The year 1854 - The term GIS, which uses the scientific method to make a map, was used in 1854 by Jon Snow.


The year 1960 - Modern computerized GIS system started in the year 1960.


The year 1962 - Dr. Roger Tomlinson created and developed the Canadian Geographic Information System (CGIS) to store, analyze, and manipulate data collected for the Canada Land Inventory (CLI).


The software had the ability to overlay, measure, and digitize (convert scanned hardcopy maps to digital data). Dr. Tomlinson is considered the father of GIS.


The year 1980 - This period saw the emergence of commercial GIS software such as M & S Computing, Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), and Computer-Aided Resource Information System (CARIS).


All these software were similar to CGIS with more functionality and user friendly. Of all the above, the most popular today are ESG products such as ArcGIS, ArcView which account for around 80% of the global market.


HOW GIS WORK?


Visualizing Data: Geographic data that is stored in a database is displayed in the GIS software.


Combining Data: Layers are combined to create a will map.


Query: To find the value in a layer or to create a geographic query.


Advantages of GIS


  • Better decision made by government people
  • Civic engagement due to better system
  • To help identify communities that are at risk.
  • Helps to identify cases of criminology.
  • Better management of natural resources.
  • Better communication during emergencies.
  • Cost savings due to better decision
  • Finding out different types of trends within the community.
  • Planning for demographic change.

Components of GIS


Hardware:


Hardware is the physical component of a computer. Hardware may include hard disks, processors, motherboards, etc. All these hardware work together to act like computers. GIS software runs on this hardware. A computer can be called a desktop or server-based standalone. GIS can run on both of these.


Software:


GIS software provides devices and functions to input and stores spatial data or geographic data. It provides tools to perform geographic queries, run analysis models, and display geographic data in the form of a map. The GIS software uses Relation Database Management System (RDBMS) to store geographic data.


Data:


Data is also the fuel and the most important and expensive component for GIS. Geographic data is a combination of physical characteristics and this information is stored in tables. These tables are maintained by the RDBMS.


The process of capturing geographic data is called digitization, which is the most tedious task. It is the process of converting scanned hardcopy maps to digital format. Digitization is done by tracing lines with geographic characteristics.


People:


People are users of the GIS system.


People use all three components to run a GIS system. Today's computer is fast and user-friendly which makes it easy to display geographic queries, analysis, and maps. Today everyone uses GIS to do their daily work.


Types of GIS data


Raster Data:


Raster datastores feature information in a cell-based manner. Satellite images, photogrammetry, and scanned maps are all raster-based data. The raster model is used to store data that varies continuously in aerial photography, satellite image, or elevation value (DEM-digital elevation model).


Vector data:


There are three types of vector data, point, line, and polygon. These data are created by digitizing the base data. These store information in x, y coordinates. The vectors model is used to store data, which have discrete boundaries such as country boundaries, land parcels, and roads.


RASTER FORMATS


ADRG – ARC Digitized Raster Graphics


RPF – Raster Product Format, military


DRG – Digital raster graphic


ECRG – Enhanced Compressed ARC Raster Graphics


ECW – Enhanced Compressed Wavelet


IMG – image file format used by ERDAS


JPEG2000 – Open-source raster format


MrSID – Multi-Resolution Seamless Image Database


VECTOR FORMATS


AutoCAD DXF –AutoCAD DXF format by Autodesk


Cartesian coordinate system (XYZ) – simple point cloud


DLG – Digital Line Graph (USGS format)


GML – Geography Markup Language – Open GIS format used for exchanging GIS data


GeoJSON – a lightweight format based on JSON, used by many open-source GIS packages


GeoMedia – Intergraph’s Microsoft Access-based format for spatial vector storage


ISFC – Intergraph’s MicroStation based CAD solution


KML – Keyhole Markup Language an XML based


MapInfo TAB format – MapInfo’s vector data format


NTF – National Transfer Format


Spatialite – is a spatial extension to SQLite,


Shapefile – Most popular vector data developed by Esri


TIGER – Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing


PDF – Vector Product Format


Simple summary


  • A geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer system used to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and display all types of spatial or geographic data.
  • GIS is used to create and print maps.
  • This is software with the help of mapping the target area. After this, accurate information of that entire area is acquired by sitting in the office through the data received.
  • This software is being used in the fields of Earth Science, Farming, Defense, Nuclear Science, Architecture, Town Planner, Mapping, Mobile, etc.
  • The term GIS, which uses the scientific method for map-making, was used in 1854 by Jon Snow.
  • There are two types of GIS data - raster data and vector data.
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