Job Interviews: Top 80+ Most Asked Computer related Questions and Answers

Most Asked Interview Questions regarding Computer Skills - For Freshers

As technology continues to shape the modern workforce, computer skills have become a necessity for job seekers in many industries. Whether you're a software engineer, data analyst, or office manager, having a solid foundation in computer skills can make you stand out in the competitive job market.

However, just having these skills is not enough; you must also be able to effectively communicate your expertise to potential employers during job interviews.

To help you prepare for your next interview, we have compiled a list of common interview questions related to computer skills.

In this article, we'll explore the types of questions that employers may ask and provide tips on how to answer them in a way that showcases your knowledge and experience.

By the end of this article, you'll be equipped with the tools you need to confidently demonstrate your computer skills during your next job interview.

Most Asked Computer related Interview Questions and Answers

The tech industry is constantly evolving, and as a job seeker, it's important to stay up-to-date with the latest trends and technologies. One of the most critical aspects of landing a job in this industry is performing well in a technical interview.

Technical interviews can be challenging, and they often involve answering complex questions related to computer science, programming, and data analysis.

To help you prepare for your next technical interview, we have compiled a list of the most commonly asked computer-related interview questions and their answers. In this section, we'll cover a broad range of topics, including programming languages, data structures, algorithms, and problem-solving techniques.

By reviewing these questions and their answers, you can gain a deeper understanding of the types of questions that may come up in your interview and be better prepared to answer them effectively.

Whether you're a recent graduate or an experienced professional, this section will provide valuable insights and practical tips to help you succeed in your next computer-related technical interview.

Q 1. Tell me about yourself - HR 1st Question

Here are some points you can include when a company HR asks, “Tell me about yourself?”:

  • 1st: Start with your Introduction

Begin by stating your name and a brief overview of your background. Mention where you are from, where you studied, and what degree(s) you have earned.

  • 2nd: Tell about your Professional experience: 

Discuss your professional experience in a clear and concise manner. Mention your current or previous job titles, your responsibilities, and your achievements. Highlight your skills and accomplishments that are relevant to the job you are applying for.

  • 3rd: Tell about your Career goals: 

Explain why you are interested in the position and what you hope to achieve in your career. Demonstrate your enthusiasm for the industry and the company, and explain how you believe you can contribute to the organization's goals.

  • 4th: Tell about your Personal qualities: 

Talk about your personal qualities and attributes that make you a suitable candidate for the job. Mention your strengths, such as your communication skills, leadership abilities, and problem-solving skills.

  • 5th: Tell about your Hobbies and interests: 

You can also mention your hobbies and interests, especially if they are related to the job or demonstrate skills that are valuable in the workplace. For example, if you enjoy coding in your free time, you can mention it if you are applying for a software development position.

Remember to keep your response concise and relevant to the job you are applying for. The goal is to give the interviewer a clear idea of who you are, what you have done in the past, and how you can contribute to the company's success in the future.

Computer Interview Questions & Answers

General Interview Questions

  • What motivated you to pursue a career in the computer industry

    I have always been fascinated by technology and its ability to solve problems and improve people's lives. As a child, I loved playing with computers and learning how they worked.

    As I got older, I became more interested in the practical applications of technology and how it can be used to create innovative solutions.

    This curiosity and passion led me to pursue a degree in computer science and eventually to a career in the computer industry.

    I am constantly motivated by the opportunity to work on new and exciting projects and to be part of a field that is constantly evolving and changing.

  • Can you tell us about your background in the computer industry

    Certainly, I can tell you about my background in the computer industry. I have been passionate about technology and computers since a young age, and this led me to pursue a degree in computer science.

    Throughout my academic career, I gained a strong foundation in programming languages, software development, and computer networking.

    After graduation, I started my career as a software engineer, where I worked on developing applications and systems for various industries. I gained experience in various programming languages, database technologies, and software development methodologies.

    Later, I moved into a managerial role where I oversaw the development and implementation of large-scale software projects.

    In addition to my work experience, I also stay up-to-date with the latest developments in the computer industry by attending conferences, reading industry publications, and participating in online communities.

    I believe my background in the computer industry has equipped me with a strong skill set and a deep understanding of technology, which would be valuable assets to bring to any role in the industry.

  • Have You Earned Any Computer Certifications?

    Yes, I have earned several computer certifications over the years. One of the most notable is the CompTIA A+ certification, which demonstrates my knowledge of computer hardware and software.

    I have also earned certifications in various programming languages, such as Java and Python, which have helped me to develop my skills in software development.

    In addition, I have earned certifications in project management and data analysis, which have helped me to develop a broad set of skills in various aspects of computer technology.

    I believe that earning certifications is an important way to demonstrate my commitment to professional development and to stay up-to-date with the latest trends and technologies in the field.

    Overall, I believe that my certifications, combined with my experience and skills, make me a strong candidate for any computer-related job.

  • How many words can you type per minute

    My average typing speed is around 40-45 words per minute.

  • How Proficient Are You in the Use of Photo and Video Design Software?

    I would rate my proficiency in using photo and video design software as intermediate. I have experience working with programs such as Adobe Photoshop and Premiere Pro, and have completed several projects using these tools.

    While I am comfortable with the basics of these programs, I am always eager to learn more and expand my skill set. I am open to training and dedicated to improving my proficiency in these tools.

  • Are you comfortable with using a computer all day

    Technically, there are required breaks like lunch or meetings, or personal errands. However, for the most part, I spend most of my days at the computer. Since I work from home, I have fewer “opportunities” to leave my desk.

    Sometimes, I get lazy and find an excuse to do something different. Often, that’s a sign I've been sitting too long and need exercise.

    But for the most part, I'm OK to spend the whole day working on a computer.

  • Are you more comfortable with Mac or PCs

    The decision of which operating system to use depends on your personal needs, preferences, and the specific tasks you need to perform.

    Macs are known for their sleek design, ease of use, and compatibility with creative software, while PCs are typically more customizable and offer a wider range of hardware options.

    Ultimately, both Mac and PC operating systems have their own unique advantages and drawbacks, and the best choice for you will depend on your individual needs and preferences.

    It's important to do your own research and consider your specific requirements before making a decision.

  • Are you someone who can quickly learn new computer systems

    Yes, I consider myself to be a quick learner when it comes to new computer systems. Throughout my career, I have been exposed to various types of computer systems, software, and tools, and I have always been able to adapt and learn quickly.

    Whenever I encounter a new computer system, my first approach is to study the system's user interface and functionality to understand its basic features and capabilities.

    I also look for any online resources or documentation that can provide more information about the system.

    Once I have a basic understanding of the system, I start experimenting with its features and functions, trying different options and settings to gain a deeper understanding of how it works.

    I also look for any shortcuts or tips that can help me work more efficiently within the system.

    In addition, I am always eager to learn new technologies and systems, and I am proactive in seeking out training or educational resources to improve my skills and knowledge.

    Overall, I am confident in my ability to quickly learn new computer systems and use them effectively to achieve my goals

  • Can you describe a time when you had to quickly learn a new skill or technology to complete a project, and how you approached the situation?

    When faced with the need to quickly learn a new skill or technology for a project, the first step is to assess the scope of the project and identify the specific skill or technology needed to complete it.

    Once the specific skill or technology has been identified, it's important to research and learn as much as possible about it in a short amount of time.

    One approach might be to start with online resources, such as documentation, tutorials, and forums. Another option might be to reach out to colleagues or mentors who are experienced with the technology and can provide guidance or support.

    It's important to be proactive in seeking out information and resources, as well as practicing the new skill or technology to build proficiency.

    Overall, the key is to be adaptable and willing to learn quickly, while also remaining focused and organized in order to complete the project successfully.

  • What programming languages are you proficient in, and which one do you enjoy working with the most?

    In terms of my capabilities, I am proficient in a wide range of programming languages, including but not limited to Python, Java, C++, JavaScript, Ruby, and SQL.

    Each language has its own strengths and is used for different purposes.

    For example, Python is often used for data science and artificial intelligence, Java is commonly used for building enterprise-level applications, and JavaScript is used for web development.

    As for which language I enjoy working with the most, it really depends on the task at hand. Each language has its own unique features and challenges, and I enjoy learning and working with all of them.

  • Which programming language should we learn, first C or C++

    Whether to learn C or C++ first depends on the individual's preference and the end goal of the learning process.

    If the goal is to learn programming basics, then starting with C can be beneficial as it is a simpler language with fewer features and concepts than C++. This approach allows learners to grasp fundamental programming concepts such as variables, data types, loops, and functions before moving on to more complex topics.

    On the other hand, if the goal is to learn object-oriented programming (OOP), then starting with C++ would be more beneficial as it is a more modern and feature-rich language that supports OOP concepts such as inheritance, polymorphism, and encapsulation.

    Ultimately, both languages have their merits and learning them can be beneficial for different purposes. It is essential to choose a language that aligns with the learner's goals and interests.

  • Do you have any experience using HTML

    Yes, I have experience using HTML. In my previous roles as a [ insert job title ], I have used HTML extensively for creating and designing websites.

    I am comfortable with HTML tags and syntax, and I have experience using HTML editors such as Sublime Text and Atom.

    In addition, I am familiar with the latest HTML5 standards and best practices, and I have experience integrating HTML with other technologies such as CSS and JavaScript.

    I am also well-versed in responsive design principles, which are critical for ensuring that web pages display properly on a variety of devices and screen sizes.

    Overall, I am confident in my ability to use HTML effectively to create and design visually appealing and user-friendly websites, and I look forward to applying these skills to future projects.

  • How Would You Rate Your Competency in HTML?

    I would rate myself as highly competent in HTML. I have worked extensively with HTML in my previous roles and have a strong understanding of its structure and syntax.

    I am able to create and edit HTML code by hand and am comfortable using HTML editors such as Sublime Text and Notepad++.

    Additionally, I am knowledgeable about HTML5 and its new features, and stay updated on any changes or updates to the language.

    Overall, I feel confident in my ability to use HTML to create and maintain websites and web applications.

  • What social media websites have you used in a professional setting

    In a professional setting, I have primarily used LinkedIn and Twitter. LinkedIn is a great platform for networking and building professional connections, while Twitter can be a valuable tool for staying up to date with industry news and trends.

    I have also used Facebook Pages to manage business pages for clients and to run targeted advertising campaigns.

    However, I always prioritize maintaining a professional image on social media and being mindful of the content I share or engage with.

  • Which Google-Based Business Tools Have You Used in Your Previous Roles?

    Commonly used Google-based business tools include Google Drive, Google Docs, Google Sheets, Google Slides, Google Calendar, and Google Meet. These tools are great for collaboration and productivity, and I am familiar with their features and functionalities.

  • Do you know how to use Microsoft Excel or similar spreadsheet software

    Yes, I have extensive experience using Microsoft Excel and other similar spreadsheet software. In my previous roles as a [ insert job title ], I have used Excel to manage and analyze data, create reports, and develop financial models.

    I am familiar with Excel's various functions and features, including pivot tables, conditional formatting, and data validation.

    I am also proficient in using formulas and functions such as VLOOKUP, SUMIF, and COUNTIF to manipulate and analyze data.

    Additionally, I am comfortable with using Excel's charting and graphing capabilities to visually represent data and trends.

    I have also used similar spreadsheet software such as Google Sheets and Apple Numbers, and I am confident in my ability to adapt to any spreadsheet software that is required for a particular project or role.

    Overall, I believe my experience and expertise in using Excel and other spreadsheet software would be an asset to any team or organization.

  • What's your experience using Microsoft Word

    When it comes to assessing my proficiency in Microsoft Word, I think that rating does the best job here. If I should rate my skills on a scale from 0 to 10, I would give myself 8.

    I have been working with the software regularly from my school time, preparing seminary works and other materials, and I believe I know everything about formatting, layout, etc.

    However, I am aware that there is always room for improvement in everything we do.

    Therefore, I would never give myself a perfect ten, even if I worked 10 hours each day with the software.

    I believe that maintaining a growth mindset and continuously striving to improve is the key to success in any field, including the computer industry.

  • Which character indicates division in Excel?

    In Excel, the forward slash (/) or the backslash () character can be used to indicate division between two values. For example, if you want to divide the value in cell A1 by the value in cell B1, you can enter the formula "=A1/B1" or "=A1\B1" in another cell.

  • Have you ever worked on a project that required collaboration with a team? Can you discuss your role and contributions to the project?

    Yes, I have worked on several projects that required collaboration with a team. One project that comes to mind is a software development project where I was part of a team responsible for developing a new feature for our company's flagship product.

    My role in the project was to lead the design and development of the front-end user interface for the new feature. I collaborated closely with the back-end developers to ensure that our code was properly integrated and that the user interface functioned as expected.

    In addition, I also contributed to other aspects of the project, such as testing and debugging, and worked closely with the project manager to ensure that our team met all of our deadlines and milestones.

    Overall, I believe that my contributions to the project helped to ensure its success, and that my ability to collaborate effectively with my team members was a key factor in achieving our goals.

  • How do you approach problem-solving in the computer industry, and can you provide an example of a particularly challenging problem you solved?

    When it comes to problem-solving in the computer industry, I typically start by breaking down the problem into smaller, more manageable parts. I like to gather as much information as possible, and I'll often consult with my colleagues or other resources to get additional insights.

    Once I have a better understanding of the problem and its underlying causes, I'll then develop a plan of action and start working on a solution. Depending on the complexity of the problem, this might involve coding, debugging, or other technical tasks.

    An example of a particularly challenging problem I solved was during a software development project where we were experiencing a high volume of errors in our code. After investigating the issue, we discovered that the problem was related to a memory leak in our software, which was causing it to consume an excessive amount of system resources.

    To solve the problem, I worked with my team to analyze the code and identify the root cause of the memory leak. We then implemented several changes to optimize the code and improve its memory management.

    This included making use of efficient data structures, reducing unnecessary function calls, and implementing more effective error handling.

    After implementing these changes, we were able to significantly reduce the number of errors in our code and improve the overall performance of our software.

    This experience taught me the importance of thorough problem analysis, collaboration with team members, and the value of effective coding practices for software development.

  • How do you manage your time and prioritize tasks when working on multiple projects simultaneously?

    When working on multiple projects simultaneously, time management and task prioritization are crucial skills.

    Here is an example response to this question:

    I approach time management and task prioritization by first assessing the urgency and importance of each project. I create a to-do list and prioritize tasks based on deadlines and the impact they have on the overall project.

    I also make sure to allocate time for unexpected issues or emergencies that may arise. I use various tools, such as project management software or a calendar, to keep track of deadlines and ensure that I stay on track.

    An example of how I managed my time and prioritized tasks was when I was working on three projects at the same time. I made sure to communicate with each team and set realistic expectations for deadlines. I then prioritized the tasks that were critical to the success of each project and allocated my time accordingly.

    By effectively managing my time and prioritizing tasks, I was able to complete each project on time and deliver quality results.

  • How do you stay updated with the latest trends and technologies in the computer industry?

    It's important to stay up-to-date in the rapidly evolving computer industry to remain competitive and valuable as a professional.

    Here are a few ways I stay informed:

    Professional networks: I participate in professional networks such as LinkedIn groups, attend industry conferences and workshops, and engage with colleagues and industry professionals to learn about the latest trends and technologies.

    Online resources: I regularly follow reputable online resources such as TechCrunch, Wired, and Engadget to stay informed on the latest technology news, product releases, and industry trends.

    Continuing education: I also believe in the importance of continuing education and regularly attend training courses or pursue additional certifications to expand my skill set and stay current.

    By utilizing these resources and staying informed, I can provide valuable insights and remain competitive in the computer industry.

  • What do you consider to be your biggest achievement in the computer industry, and why?

    My biggest achievement in the computer industry was when I led a team to develop a new software system for a client in the healthcare industry. The system was designed to streamline their administrative processes and improve patient care.

    The project was challenging, as the client had specific requirements and tight deadlines. I approached the project by first gaining a deep understanding of the client's needs and requirements, and then breaking down the project into manageable tasks for my team.

    I also made sure to communicate regularly with the client to ensure we were meeting their expectations.

    Throughout the project, I provided guidance and support to my team members, while also ensuring that everyone stayed on track with their respective tasks. We completed the project within the given timeline, and the client was extremely satisfied with the end result.

    This achievement was significant for me because it demonstrated my leadership skills, problem-solving abilities, and technical knowledge. It also reinforced my commitment to delivering high-quality work and exceeding client expectations.

  • What do you see as the future of the computer industry, and how do you plan to stay relevant in this evolving field?

    The computer industry is constantly evolving, and it's important for professionals to stay current with the latest technologies and trends. I believe that the future of the computer industry lies in areas such as artificial intelligence, machine learning, and cloud computing.

    To stay relevant in this field, I plan to continuously educate myself and pursue additional certifications in these areas. I also plan to attend industry conferences and network with other professionals to stay up-to-date with the latest developments.

    Additionally, I believe it's important to remain flexible and adaptable, as the technology landscape can change rapidly.

  • What do you think are the most important skills for success in the computer industry, and how do you demonstrate them?

    In my opinion, some of the most important skills for success in the computer industry include problem-solving, critical thinking, adaptability, and continuous learning.

    To demonstrate these skills, I make sure to stay up to date with the latest technologies and industry trends by regularly reading industry publications, attending conferences and workshops, and engaging in online learning resources.

    Additionally, I approach problems with a strategic and analytical mindset, breaking them down into smaller components and considering all possible solutions before making a decision. Finally, I am adaptable and flexible, willing to pivot and adjust my approach as needed to meet project goals and deliver high-quality work.

Technical Interview Questions

  • 1 GB consists of how many megabytes?

    1 GB consists of 1024 megabytes.

  • 1KB is composed of how many bytes?

    1KB (kilobyte) is composed of 1024 bytes.

  • A byte has how many bits?

    A byte has 8 bits.

  • Are there any input devices other than keyboard or mouse?

    Yes, there are several input devices other than keyboard and mouse, some of them are:

    Touchscreen displays: These devices allow users to interact with a computer by touching the display directly.

    Joysticks and Gamepads: These devices are commonly used for playing games on a computer.

    Scanners: Scanners are used to convert physical documents, images, or photos into digital files that can be stored on a computer.

    Microphone: Microphones are used to input audio data into a computer, such as for recording voice overs, podcasts, or dictation.

    Digital cameras: Digital cameras can be connected to a computer to transfer photos or videos.

    Graphics tablets: These devices allow users to draw or write directly on a tablet surface, which is then captured and displayed on a computer screen.

    Barcode scanners: These devices are used to scan and input data from barcodes, commonly used in retail or inventory management.

    Touchpads: Touchpads are commonly used on laptops as an alternative to a mouse, allowing users to move the cursor by sliding their finger across a flat surface.

  • Can we open the same file in multiple Notepad windows at once?

    Yes, we can open the same file in multiple Notepad windows at once. To do this, simply open the file in Notepad as usual, and then open another instance of Notepad.

    From the new instance, you can use the "File" menu to open the same file again, creating a second window that displays the same content.

    This can be useful if you need to compare different parts of the same file or make edits in different sections simultaneously.

  • Define Cin and Cout

    “cin” and “cout” are standard input and output streams in C++ programming language, respectively.

    cin is used for taking input from the user through the keyboard, and it is associated with the standard input device, which is the keyboard.

    cout, on the other hand, is used to output data to the standard output device, which is usually the console or terminal window. It is used to display the output of the program to the user.

    Both cin and cout are part of the “iostream” library in C++, which provides a set of input and output operations. They are defined in the iostream header file.

  • Distinguish between constructor and method

    The difference between constructor and method is:

    Constructor is used for initializing the instance of any class.Method is used to perform some operation or function.
    It does not have any return typeIt has a return type.
    The constructor name must be the same as a class name.The name of the method can be the same or different as per need.
    It calls automatically when you create a class object.You need to call the method explicitly.
    There is a default constructor which is provided by the compiler.There is no method provided by the compiler.
  • Distinguish between constructor and method abstract class and interface

    The difference between class and interface is:

    Abstract classInterface
    Abstract class does not support inheritance.The interface supports multiple inheritances.
    An abstract class would contain constructor.The interface does not contain a constructor.
    An abstract class is declared using the “Abstract” keyword.The interface is declared using the “interface” keyword.
    It can be used with all access modifiers.It can be used with only public access modifier.
  • Does RAM store data after the computer is switched off?

    No, RAM (Random Access Memory) is a type of volatile memory, which means that it requires a constant flow of electricity to maintain its stored data. When the computer is switched off, the power supply to the RAM is cut off, and the data stored in it is lost.

    That's why it's important to save your work and shut down your computer properly before turning it off to avoid losing any unsaved data.

  • Explain class variable

    A class variable is a variable that is shared among all instances of a class. It is also sometimes referred to as a static variable or a shared variable. In object-oriented programming, a class is a blueprint for creating objects that have properties and methods.

    A class variable is a property of the class itself, rather than a property of an individual object.

    When a class variable is modified in one instance of the class, the change is reflected in all other instances of the class. This can be useful for maintaining a single, shared state across all instances of a class.

    However, it's important to use class variables carefully, as modifying them can have unintended consequences if you're not careful.

    In most programming languages, class variables are declared with a specific syntax, such as using the "static" keyword in Java or C#.

    Once a class variable is declared, it can be accessed by any instance of the class using the dot notation, such as ClassName.VariableName.

  • Explain primary memory

    Primary memory, also known as the main memory or internal memory, is a type of computer memory that is directly accessible by the CPU. It is used to temporarily store data and instructions that the CPU needs to access frequently and quickly.

    There are two main types of primary memory in a computer system: Random Access Memory (RAM) and Read-Only Memory (ROM). RAM is used to store data and instructions that are currently being used by the computer, while ROM stores the firmware and instructions needed to boot up the computer.

    RAM is volatile memory, meaning that its contents are lost when the computer is turned off or restarted. On the other hand, ROM is non-volatile memory, meaning that its contents are retained even when the computer is turned off.

    Overall, primary memory plays a critical role in the performance of a computer system, as it provides fast and direct access to data and instructions that the CPU needs to process.

  • Explain the framework

    In software development, a framework is a pre-designed and reusable software platform that provides a structure and standard for building applications.

    A framework typically includes a set of libraries, tools, and guidelines that developers can use to create and maintain software applications.

    Frameworks often provide common functionality and features, such as handling user authentication, database access, and user interface design, allowing developers to focus on building the unique parts of the application.

    Frameworks can also help developers save time and reduce errors by providing a pre-built codebase that they can use as a starting point for their application.

    This helps to ensure that the application adheres to best practices, is scalable, and can be easily maintained and updated over time.

    Some popular frameworks in web development include React, Angular, Vue, and Ruby on Rails. In addition to web development, frameworks are used in a wide range of other software development fields, such as mobile app development, game development, and desktop application development.

  • Explain the various type of access modifiers

    In object-oriented programming, access modifiers are used to restrict or permit access to the class members like fields, methods, and constructors. There are four access modifiers in Java:

    Public: When a class member is declared as public, it can be accessed from anywhere, including other classes and packages.

    Private: When a class member is declared as private, it can only be accessed within the same class where it is declared. Other classes and packages cannot access it.

    Protected: When a class member is declared as protected, it can be accessed within the same class, subclasses of the class, and other classes in the same package.

    Default: If no access modifier is specified, it is considered as default or package-private. When a class member is declared as default, it can be accessed only within the same package.

    Access modifiers provide security to the class members by controlling their visibility and preventing unwanted modification or access.

  • How can we access a folder in Windows on a network?

    To access a folder on a network in Windows, follow these steps:

    1. Open File Explorer or This PC on your computer.

    2. In the address bar, type the network path of the folder in the following format: \\<computer name or IP address>\<shared folder name>

    For example, \\\SharedFolder or \\MyComputer\SharedFolder.

    3. Press Enter or click on the arrow next to the address bar.

    4. If prompted, enter the username and password of a user account that has permission to access the shared folder on the remote computer. The shared folder should now open in File Explorer or This PC, and you can view, modify, or copy files as necessary.

    Note: The steps to access a folder on a network may vary slightly depending on the version of Windows you are using.

  • How will you protect data on the hard disk?

    To protect data on a hard disk, here are a few steps that can be taken:

    Use strong passwords: The first and foremost step to protect data on a hard disk is to use strong and unique passwords. This will prevent unauthorized access to the data.

    Enable disk encryption: Disk encryption is a technique that scrambles data on the hard disk so that only authorized users with the key or password can access it. There are various disk encryption tools available, such as BitLocker and VeraCrypt, that can be used for this purpose.

    Use antivirus software: Antivirus software can be used to protect against malware that can damage or steal data from the hard disk.

    Regular backups: Regular backups of important data on the hard disk should be taken and stored in a safe location. This ensures that data can be restored in case of a hard disk failure or other disasters.

    Physical security: Physical security measures should also be taken to protect the hard disk, such as locking the computer and using security cables to prevent theft.

  • List out different OOPS principles?

    There are 4 main principles of object-oriented programming (OOP):

    Encapsulation: It is the practice of keeping the internal workings of a class hidden from the outside world, and only exposing a public interface for other classes to interact with. This is achieved through the use of access modifiers like public, private, and protected.

    Inheritance: It is the ability of a class to inherit properties and methods from a parent class, also known as a superclass. This allows for code reuse and makes it easier to manage complex class hierarchies.

    Polymorphism: It is the ability of a class to take on multiple forms, depending on the context in which it is used. This is typically achieved through the use of inheritance and method overriding.

    Abstraction: It is the practice of modeling complex real-world systems using simplified, abstract representations. This involves identifying the essential properties and behaviors of a system, while ignoring irrelevant details. In OOP, abstraction is typically achieved through the use of abstract classes and interfaces.

  • List out Layers of OSI Model

    The OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model is a conceptual framework that is used to describe the communication functions of a network or a system.

    The OSI model has seven layers, each of which represents a specific communication function. The layers, in order from the lowest to the highest, are:

    Physical layer: This layer is responsible for the transmission of raw bits over a communication channel. It defines the electrical, mechanical, and functional specifications for the physical connection between devices.

    Data link layer: This layer is responsible for the reliable transfer of data across a physical connection. It defines the protocol for transmitting data over a link, including error detection and correction.

    Network layer: This layer is responsible for the routing of data across multiple networks. It defines the protocol for addressing and routing data between networks.

    Transport layer: This layer is responsible for the reliable transfer of data between endpoints. It defines the protocol for the establishment, maintenance, and termination of a connection between endpoints, as well as flow control and error recovery.

    Session layer: This layer is responsible for the management of sessions between endpoints. It defines the protocol for establishing and maintaining sessions, as well as for synchronizing data exchange between sessions.

    Presentation layer: This layer is responsible for the representation of data in a format that can be understood by the application. It defines the protocol for the translation, compression, and encryption of data.

    Application layer: This layer is responsible for the interaction between the application and the network. It defines the protocol for the transfer of data between applications, as well as for the interaction between the application and the user.

  • List out some computer processors

    Here are some examples of computer processors:

    1. Intel Core i9
    2. AMD Ryzen Threadripper
    3. Intel Xeon
    4. Qualcomm Snapdragon
    5. Apple M1
    6. Nvidia Tegra
    7. IBM PowerPC
    8. ARM Cortex
    9. AMD A-Series APUs
    10. Intel Atom.

  • List out some popular operating system

    Here are some popular operating systems:

    1. Windows (Microsoft)
    2. macOS (Apple)
    3. Linux (open-source)
    4. Android (Google)
    5. iOS (Apple)
    6. Chrome OS (Google)
    7. Unix (open-source)
    8. FreeBSD (open-source)
    9. Ubuntu (open-source)
    10. Debian (open-source)

  • List the keyboard keys to create a new blank document in MS-Word?

    The keyboard keys to create a new blank document in MS-Word are:

    1. Press the CTRL key and hold it down
    2. While holding down the CTRL key, press the N key

    This will create a new blank document in MS-Word.

  • List the smallest storage unit in a computer?

    The smallest storage unit in a computer is a bit.

  • List the types of constructors in Java

    There are three types of constructors in Java:

    Default Constructor: A default constructor is a constructor that takes no arguments. If a class does not have any constructors, then the compiler automatically creates a default constructor.

    Parameterized Constructor: A parameterized constructor is a constructor that takes one or more parameters as input. It is used to initialize the instance variables of a class with user-defined values.

    Copy Constructor: A copy constructor is a constructor that creates an object by copying the values of another object of the same class. It is used to create a new object with the same state as an existing object.

  • What is SDLC? SDLC: Full form? Why is it used?

    SDLC stands for Software Development Life Cycle. It is a process used by software development teams to design, develop, test, and deploy high-quality software.

    The SDLC process includes different phases, such as planning, analysis, design, implementation, testing, and maintenance.

    The purpose of the SDLC is to provide a structured approach to software development that ensures the software product is developed on time, within budget, and to the required quality standards.

    It helps teams to manage software projects effectively and efficiently by providing a framework for planning, designing, and testing software.

    The SDLC also provides a set of guidelines for software developers to follow to ensure that software is developed to the highest quality standards and that it meets the needs of its intended users.

  • What are the different OOPs principles in Java?

    There are four main principles of Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) in Java.

    They are:

    Encapsulation: It is the concept of bundling data and the methods that work on that data within a single unit. In Java, classes are the example of encapsulation, which allows hiding the internal details of the object from outside the world.

    Inheritance: It is the process of defining a new class based on an existing class. The new class inherits the properties of the existing class and can modify or add new features to it. Inheritance helps in reducing the amount of code and promotes code reusability.

    Polymorphism: It refers to the ability of an object to take on many forms. In Java, polymorphism is achieved through method overloading and method overriding. Method overloading is having multiple methods with the same name but different parameters, while method overriding is having the same method name and parameters in the parent and child classes.

    Abstraction: It is the process of showing only essential information to the user and hiding implementation details. In Java, abstraction is achieved through abstract classes and interfaces. Abstract classes are classes that cannot be instantiated, and interfaces are a collection of abstract methods that can be implemented by any class.

  • What are the key differences between primary and secondary memory?

    Primary memory and secondary memory are two different types of computer memory. Here are the key differences between them:

    Volatility: Primary memory is volatile, which means that its contents are lost when the power is turned off, while secondary memory is non-volatile, which means that its contents are retained even when the power is turned off.

    Capacity: Primary memory is generally smaller in capacity than secondary memory. Primary memory typically refers to RAM (Random Access Memory) which can range from a few GBs to a few hundred GBs, while secondary memory includes hard disk drives (HDDs) and solid-state drives (SSDs) which can range from a few hundred GBs to multiple TBs.

    Access time: Primary memory has a much faster access time than secondary memory. This is because primary memory is located on the motherboard and is accessed directly by the processor, while secondary memory is located on external storage devices such as hard drives and is accessed through input/output operations.

    Cost: Primary memory is more expensive than secondary memory. This is because primary memory is made up of faster and more expensive memory chips, while secondary memory is made up of slower and cheaper storage devices.

    Overall, primary memory is used to temporarily store data that is currently being used by the CPU, while secondary memory is used for long-term storage of data and programs.

  • What are the main components of a computer system?

    The main components of a computer system are:

    Central Processing Unit (CPU): It is the brain of the computer that performs all the processing activities.

    Memory: It is the storage space that holds data and instructions that the CPU needs to perform operations.

    Input Devices: These are the devices used to give commands and data to the computer, such as a keyboard, mouse, scanner, etc.

    Output Devices: These are the devices that display the output of the computer, such as a monitor, printer, etc.

    Storage Devices: These are the devices that store data for long-term use, such as a hard disk drive, solid-state drive, etc.

    Motherboard: It is the main circuit board that connects all the components of a computer system.

    Power Supply: It is the component that provides power to all the other components of the computer.

    Cooling System: It is the system that prevents the computer from overheating by removing excess heat generated by the components.

  • What are the most commonly used programming languages nowadays?

    There are several programming languages that are commonly used nowadays, depending on the purpose and domain of the software application.
    Some of the most commonly used programming languages are:

    Java: Java is a popular object-oriented programming language that is widely used for developing web and mobile applications, as well as for creating desktop software and embedded systems.

    Python: Python is a high-level, interpreted programming language that is used for developing web applications, data analysis, machine learning, and artificial intelligence.

    JavaScript: JavaScript is a scripting language that is widely used for creating dynamic and interactive web applications, as well as for developing web servers and mobile applications.

    C#: C# is a modern, object-oriented programming language that is widely used for developing Windows desktop and mobile applications, as well as for creating games and virtual reality experiences.

    Swift: Swift is a powerful, open-source programming language that is used for developing iOS, macOS, watchOS, and tvOS applications.

    PHP: PHP is a server-side scripting language that is commonly used for developing dynamic web applications, as well as for creating content management systems and e-commerce platforms.

    C++: C++ is a powerful, high-performance programming language that is widely used for developing system software, such as operating systems, device drivers, and embedded systems, as well as for creating games and graphics applications.

    Ruby: Ruby is a dynamic, object-oriented programming language that is widely used for developing web applications, as well as for creating command-line tools and scripts.

    Kotlin: Kotlin is a modern, cross-platform programming language that is used for developing Android, web, and server-side applications, as well as for creating desktop software and command-line tools.

  • What are the most popular operating systems used in computer systems?

    The most popular operating systems used in computer systems are:

    1. Microsoft Windows
    2. macOS
    3. Linux
    4. Android (mobile and tablet devices)
    5. iOS (mobile and tablet devices)
    6. Chrome OS (used in Chromebooks)

  • What could be the reason for printouts being light on from the black & white laser printer?

    There could be several reasons why printouts are light from a black and white laser printer. Here are some possible reasons:

    Toner cartridge is low on toner: When the toner cartridge in a laser printer is low on toner, printouts may become faint. It is recommended to replace the toner cartridge when the toner level becomes low.

    Toner cartridge is defective: A defective toner cartridge can also cause light printouts. If a new toner cartridge is installed, and the printouts are still light, it is possible that the toner cartridge itself is defective.

    Printer settings need adjustment: If the printer settings are incorrect, such as the print quality setting set too low, or the economy mode enabled, it can cause light printouts. Check the printer settings to ensure they are set to the desired print quality.

    Fuser assembly is faulty: The fuser assembly is responsible for fusing the toner onto the paper. If the fuser assembly is faulty or damaged, it can cause printouts to be light.

    Paper is not suitable for the printer: If the paper being used is not suitable for the printer, such as it is too thin or glossy, it can cause printouts to be light.

    It is recommended to troubleshoot the issue by checking the printer settings, replacing the toner cartridge, and inspecting the fuser assembly. If the issue persists, it may be necessary to consult a technician or the printer manufacturer for further assistance.

  • What do you Mean by a File?

    A file is a collection of data or information that is stored on a computer. It can contain text, images, audio, video, programs, or any other type of data. Files can be created, edited, and saved using various software applications on a computer.

    Each file is identified by a unique name and is stored in a specific location on the computer's hard drive or other storage media.

    Files can be organized into folders and directories to help manage and locate them easily. In computer systems, files are the basic unit of storage and data exchange.

  • What do you mean by destructor?

    In object-oriented programming, a destructor is a member function that is called automatically when an object is destroyed. It is the opposite of a constructor, which is called when an object is created.

    The purpose of a destructor is to release resources that were allocated during the lifetime of the object. This includes freeing memory that was allocated using new, releasing file handles, closing network connections, and other actions that may be required to clean up after the object.

    In C++, a destructor is identified by the ~ symbol followed by the class name, and is invoked automatically when the object goes out of scope or is explicitly deleted.

  • What do you understand by IDE?

    IDE stands for Integrated Development Environment. It is a software application that provides a comprehensive environment for software development.

    IDEs typically include a source code editor, a compiler or interpreter, build automation tools, and debugging tools, all integrated into a single software application.

    IDEs are designed to help developers write, test, and debug code more efficiently and effectively by providing features such as syntax highlighting, code completion, and version control integration.

    Examples of popular IDEs include Visual Studio, Eclipse, and IntelliJ IDEA.

  • What is a byte stream?

    In computer science, a byte stream refers to a sequence of bytes that are sent or received in a continuous flow. A byte is the smallest unit of measurement for digital data and typically consists of 8 bits.

    Byte streams are often used for transferring data between different programs or systems, and can be used for various purposes such as file input/output, network communication, and data compression.

    Byte streams can be read and written using different programming languages and can be stored in various formats, such as text or binary.

  • What is a class?

    In object-oriented programming, a class is a blueprint or a template for creating objects that define a set of attributes (data) and methods (functions) that describe the behavior of those objects.

    It is an essential concept of object-oriented programming and helps in organizing and managing large code bases by providing a way to define objects with similar characteristics and functionalities.

    A class can be thought of as a user-defined data type, which encapsulates data and functions into a single unit. An object is an instance of a class, created by allocating memory for it, and it has its own set of attributes and methods defined by the class.

  • What Is A Super-class?

    In object-oriented programming, a superclass (or parent class) is a class that is inherited by one or more subclasses (or child classes). The subclass inherits the features and behaviors of the superclass, which can be extended or overridden to create new or modified functionality.

    The superclass is a more general class that defines common attributes and methods shared by its subclasses. The subclass, on the other hand, is a more specific class that inherits those attributes and methods and adds new ones to represent a specialized type of object. This concept is also known as inheritance or class hierarchy.

  • What is a constructor in an object-oriented programming language?

    A constructor in an object-oriented programming language is a special method that is used to create and initialize an object. It is called when an instance of a class is created, and is used to set the initial values of the object's instance variables or properties.

    The constructor typically has the same name as the class, and can take arguments or parameters that are used to set the initial state of the object. In Java, a constructor is defined using the “public ClassName()” syntax, where “ClassName” is the name of the class.

  • What is a constructor?

    In object-oriented programming, a constructor is a special type of method that is invoked automatically at the time of object creation. It is used to initialize the object's data members and set up its initial state.

    In most object-oriented programming languages, the constructor has the same name as the class it belongs to and does not have a return type.

    It can have parameters or no parameters, depending on the specific needs of the class. When an object is created, the constructor is called implicitly and initializes the data members of the object to their initial values.

  • What is a microprocessor?

    A microprocessor is an integrated circuit that contains the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) of a computer. It is a small and powerful computer chip that executes instructions and performs calculations in digital devices such as personal computers, smartphones, tablets, and other electronic devices. The microprocessor consists of an arithmetic logic unit (ALU), a control unit (CU), and registers. It reads, interprets, and executes instructions that are stored in the computer's memory. The first microprocessor, the Intel 4004, was introduced in 1971, and since then, microprocessors have become faster, smaller, and more efficient, powering the development of modern technology.

  • What is a programming language?

    A programming language is a formal language used to communicate with a computer in order to give instructions or commands to perform certain tasks. It is a set of rules and guidelines used to write software or computer programs that are executed by a computer.

    Programming languages allow developers to write code that tells the computer what to do, how to do it, and when to do it. They can be high-level languages, such as Python or Java, which are easy to read and write, or low-level languages, such as assembly language or machine code, which are closer to the binary language of the computer's processor.

  • What is a wrapper class in Java?

    In Java, a wrapper class is a class that encapsulates a primitive data type, allowing it to be treated as an object.

    Each primitive data type in Java has a corresponding wrapper class, which provides a set of methods and functionalities to perform operations on that primitive data type.

    For example, the primitive data type “int” has a corresponding wrapper class called “Integer”.

    The Integer class provides various methods for performing operations on integers, such as converting an integer to a string, finding the maximum and minimum values of two integers, and so on.

    Wrapper classes are useful in situations where objects are required, such as when working with collections, generics, or when dealing with methods that only accept objects as arguments. Wrapper classes also provide a way to store primitive data types in data structures that only accept objects, such as ArrayList or HashMap.

  • What is an abstract class?

    In Java, an abstract class is a class that is declared abstract and cannot be instantiated on its own. It serves as a base class for other classes to inherit from and provides a common interface for a group of related classes.

    An abstract class may have abstract methods, which are declared but not implemented in the abstract class. These methods must be implemented in the subclasses that extend the abstract class. Abstract classes may also have non-abstract methods and instance variables.

    Abstract classes are useful in situations where you want to create a set of related classes that share some common functionality, but each class has its own unique implementation for some of the methods. By defining the common methods in the abstract class, you can avoid duplicating code in each subclass.

  • What is an Algorithm?

    An algorithm is a step-by-step procedure for solving a problem or achieving a particular objective. It is a set of instructions that take an input and produce an output.

    In computer science, algorithms are used to solve complex problems, such as sorting data or searching for information, by breaking them down into smaller, more manageable steps that can be executed by a computer.

    Algorithms can be expressed in a variety of ways, including natural language, flowcharts, and programming languages, and they are an essential component of many computer programs and systems.

  • What is an array?

    An array is a collection of elements of the same data type stored at contiguous memory locations.

    It can store a fixed-size sequential collection of elements of the same type. The elements in an array can be accessed and processed sequentially or randomly, depending on the algorithm used.

    Arrays are widely used in programming because they are efficient and can simplify code by allowing easy access to large sets of data. In most programming languages, arrays are zero-indexed, which means that the first element is stored at index 0.

  • What is an Interface?

    In Java, an interface is a collection of abstract methods and constant fields that provide a common set of capabilities to classes that implement it. It defines a contract or a specification of what the implementing classes should be able to do, but does not provide any implementation of the methods.

    An interface can be thought of as a blueprint for a group of related classes. Any class that implements an interface must provide an implementation for all the methods declared in that interface.

    Interfaces allow for polymorphism, which means that objects of different classes can be used interchangeably if they implement the same interface.

    Interfaces are used extensively in Java to define contracts for classes that implement them, and to define standardized behaviors for a group of related classes.

    Examples of Java interfaces include the Comparable interface for sorting objects, the Serializable interface for storing objects to disk, and the ActionListener interface for responding to user interface events.

  • What is artificial intelligence?

    Artificial intelligence (AI) refers to the ability of machines or computer systems to perform tasks that typically require human intelligence, such as perception, reasoning, learning, and decision-making.

    AI involves the development of computer algorithms and models that enable machines to analyze data, recognize patterns, and make predictions or decisions based on that data.

    AI can be classified into two main categories: narrow or weak AI, and general or strong AI.

    Narrow AI involves the development of systems that are designed to perform specific tasks, such as image or speech recognition, natural language processing, or playing games like chess or Go.

    General AI, on the other hand, refers to systems that are capable of performing any intellectual task that a human can do.

    AI has numerous applications across various industries, including healthcare, finance, transportation, and manufacturing.

    Some examples of AI in action include virtual personal assistants, chatbots, recommendation engines, self-driving cars, and medical diagnosis and treatment systems.

  • What is BIOS?

    BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) is a program that is responsible for managing the communication between various components of a computer system, including the CPU, memory, storage devices, and input/output devices such as the keyboard, mouse, and monitor.

    The BIOS is stored on a chip on the motherboard and is the first software that is loaded when the computer is turned on. It performs a series of tests to check the system components and then initializes the hardware and software required to boot the operating system.

    The BIOS also provides a user interface for configuring the system settings, such as the date and time, boot order, and hardware parameters.

  • What is cryptography?

    Cryptography is the practice of securing communication from unauthorized access or disclosure by converting plain text messages into coded or scrambled messages to protect the confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity of the information.

    It involves various techniques such as encryption, decryption, hashing, digital signatures, and steganography. Cryptography is used in a wide range of applications, including secure communication over the internet, e-commerce transactions, electronic banking, and military communications, among others.

  • What is deep learning?

    Deep learning is a subset of machine learning that uses artificial neural networks with multiple layers to analyze and learn from data.

    The idea behind deep learning is to model complex patterns in large datasets by using multiple layers of nonlinear processing units, which are also known as artificial neurons.

    Each layer of the neural network extracts higher-level features from the input data, with the final layer producing the output of the model.

    Deep learning has been successful in various fields, including computer vision, natural language processing, speech recognition, and robotics.

  • What is FAT?

    FAT (File Allocation Table) is a file system used by various operating systems to organize and manage files on a storage device such as a hard disk or flash drive. It is a table that stores information about each file and directory on a disk, including the file name, location, size, and other attributes. The file allocation table keeps track of which clusters on the disk are being used by which files, and it also helps to locate files quickly. There are different versions of the FAT file system, including FAT12, FAT16, and FAT32, with each version supporting different maximum file sizes and storage capacities.

  • What is inheritance?

    Inheritance is a fundamental concept in object-oriented programming where a new class (called a derived or subclass) is created by inheriting the properties and methods of an existing class (called a base or superclass).

    The derived class can then extend, modify or enhance the behavior of the base class by adding new properties or methods or overriding the existing ones.

    Inheritance allows for code reuse and enables the creation of a hierarchy of related classes, with each derived class inheriting the characteristics of its parent class and adding its own unique features. This simplifies the programming process and promotes the principles of modularity and encapsulation.

  • What is machine learning?

    Machine learning is a branch of artificial intelligence that focuses on the development of algorithms and statistical models that enable computer systems to automatically improve their performance on a specific task, based on the analysis of data and experience.

    It involves the use of mathematical models and algorithms to enable computers to learn from and make predictions or decisions on data, without being explicitly programmed to perform a particular task.

    The goal of machine learning is to enable computers to learn and improve their performance over time, without human intervention. It has a wide range of applications in fields such as finance, healthcare, transportation, and manufacturing, among others.

  • What is multithreading in an Operating System?

    Multithreading is a concept in operating systems that allows multiple threads (or lightweight processes) to run within a single process. In a multi-threaded program, the process creates multiple threads of execution that can run concurrently, each performing a different task.

    These threads share the same resources (memory, files, etc.) of the process and can communicate with each other to exchange information.

    Multithreading can help improve the efficiency of a program by allowing it to take advantage of modern processors that have multiple cores.

    With multithreading, a program can use all available cores simultaneously to perform multiple tasks in parallel, instead of processing each task sequentially. This can lead to a significant increase in performance and efficiency.

  • What is the difference between C and C++?

    The difference between C and C++ is:

    It is a Procedural Oriented language.It is an Object-Oriented Programming language.
    C language follows Top-Down programming approachC++ follows a bottom-up programming approach.
    The file extension of a C program is .cThe file extension of a c+ + program language is.cpp
    In the C programming language, a big program code is divided into small pieces, which is called functions.In the C++ programming language, a big program code is divided into Objects and Classes.
    Structure in C does not provide the feature of function declaration.Structure in C++ provides the feature of declaring a function as a member function of the structure.
  • What is the difference between compiler and interpreter?

    The difference between compiler and interpreter is:

    Compiled code run faster.Interpreted code run slower.
    Generates output program (in the form of exe), which can be run independently from the original program.Do not generate an output program. So the programmer evaluates the source program at every time during execution.
    The target program executes independently and does not require the compiler in the memory.The interpreter exists in the memory during interpretation.
    Difficult to implement as compilers cannot predict what happens at turn time.It is best suited for the program and development environment.
    It takes an entire program as an input.It takes a single line of coding as an input.
    Display all errors after compilation, all at the same time.Displays all errors of each line one by one.
  • What is the key difference between process and thread?

    The key difference between process and thread is that a process is an independent execution unit that has its own memory space, whereas a thread is a subset of a process that shares the same memory space as its parent process.

    A process can contain multiple threads, and each thread has its own execution stack, but all threads share the same heap and code section. In contrast, each process has its own heap and code section.

    As a result, threads can communicate with each other more easily and efficiently than processes, but they can also interfere with each other's memory and cause synchronization problems.

  • What is the operating system?

    An operating system (OS) is a software component of a computer system that manages computer hardware, software resources, and provides common services for computer programs.

    The OS acts as an interface between the computer hardware and the applications software, allowing different programs to communicate with the hardware without having to know all the details of the hardware.

    Some examples of popular operating systems include Windows, macOS, Linux, and Android.

  • What is the internet?

    The internet is a global network of connected computers and other devices that communicate with each other using standardized communication protocols.

    It allows users to share information, access services, and communicate with others across vast distances.

    The internet is an incredibly diverse and dynamic platform that supports a wide range of activities, from social networking and entertainment to business, education, and research.

    It is an essential part of modern life and has transformed the way we live, work, and interact with each other.

  • What is the World Wide Web (WWW)?

    The World Wide Web (WWW or Web) is a system of interconnected documents and resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs, that are accessible over the internet. It was created in 1989 by British computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee while working at CERN, a European particle physics research organization.

    The Web allows users to access and share information in various formats, including text, images, audio, and video. It has become an essential tool for communication, commerce, education, and entertainment, and has revolutionized the way we access and use information.

  • Which default file extension is used for a compressed file in Windows?

    In Windows, the default file extension used for a compressed file is ".zip".

  • Which shortcut key will close the active window on Microsoft Windows?

    The shortcut key to close the active window on Microsoft Windows is Alt + F4

  • Which storage device stores data after the computer is switched off?

    The storage device that stores data even after the computer is switched off is called a non-volatile storage device. One such commonly used storage device is the hard disk drive (HDD).


In this post, we covered a wide range of topics related to computer science and programming. We discussed various topics, including programming languages, data structures, operating systems, networking, software development, and more. We also covered some common interview questions related to these topics.

Overall, this conversation provides a good introduction to some of the most important concepts in computer science and programming, and can serve as a useful resource for anyone looking to learn more about these topics or prepare for a job interview in the field.

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